Evaluation of Aphrodisiac activity of Trianthema decandra Linn., in male mice.

 

Veeresh1*, Pramod Kumar2, V Rama Mohan Gupta3

1Depertment of Pharmacognosy. Guru Nanak Institutions Technical Campus (Autonomous), School of Pharmacy, R. R. Dist Hyderabad.

2Department of Pharmacognosy, V. L. College of Pharmacy, Raichur, Karnataka. India

3Department of Pharmaceutics. Pulla Reddy Institute of Pharmacy, Annaram (V), Hyderabad.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: getveereshyadav@yahoo.co.in

 

ABSTRACT:

To study the effect of Trainthema decandra on the sexual behavior of male mice and general toxicity study in female mice, from aerial parts of Trianthema decandra an alcoholic extract was prepared and administered (p.o) to male mice for 30 days, after administration their mounting behavior was observed. The alcoholic extract was administered (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) to different groups of male mice and their mounting behavior, mating performance and Number of mounts was determined. The general short term toxicity of the alcohol extract in female mice was also determined as per OECD guidelines no.425. The acute toxicity of alcoholic extract was studied in mice by giving dose up to 2g/kg (p.o.). The control mice received gum acacia in an identical manner. No behavioral changes were observed in mice, hence the drug is considered as safe. The alcoholic extract of Trianthema decandra was found to stimulate the mounting behavior in male mice and decrease in mating latency. When compared to control group animals, Tentex Forte (100mg/kg) and alcoholic extract of Trianthem decandra (200, 400 mg/kg) treated groups have shown significant increase in total number of mounts and decrease in latency at 1,2,3 and 4th hour time intervals. But alcoholic extract of Trianthem decandra with 100mg/kg treated group has not shown any significant increase in number of mounts but decreased mounting latency at 1,2,3 and 4th hours. The alcoholic extract of Trianthema decandra has shown significant effect which were indicated by decreased in mounting latency and increase in the number of mounts when compared with control and standard group.

 

KEYWORDS: Sexual behaviour, acute toxicity studies, Trianthema decandra.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Trianthema decandra linn., commonly known as Gadabani and vellai sharuni, belonging to family Aizoaceae, is considered as a weed herb plant small evergreen tree found in tropical and sub-tropical parts of India [1].

 

In the traditional Indian system of medicine, the Ayurveda and various folk system of medicine, Trianthema decandra possess several medicinal properties such as tooth ache, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and other skin disorders, etc., [2]. Chemical studies have shown the presence of Carbohydrates, Alkaloids, Steroids, Triterpenoids, Flavonids, Saponins, Tannins and Phenols [3].

 

An aphrodisiac is defined as any food or drug that arouses the sexual instinct, induces veneral desire and increases pleasure and performance. ‘Aphrodiate’ is from the Greek goddess of love and these substances are derived from plants, animals or minerals. Erectile dysfunction' (ED) or (male) impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. The causes of erectile dysfunction may be physiological or psychological. Folk remedies have long been advocated, with some being advertised widely since the 1930s. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Sildenafil (trade name Viagra), in the 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. Most potent herbal aphrodisiacs are available and have less or very less side effects [4].

 

In recent years, there has been phenomenal rise in the interest of scientific community to explore the pharmacological actions or to confirm the veracity of claims made about herbs in the official books of Ayurveda and Siddha. Several plants have been reported to possess aphrodisiac activity. After review of various published works it has been revealed that a good number of plant based drugs i.e., Aalooka (Tuber), Badara (Root, Bark, Fruit), Dhanya (Seed), Dugdhika (Whole plant), Kapikachchu (Root, Seed, Hairs), Kokilaksha (Root, Seed), Musali (Root), Rushabha (Tuber), Talamuli (Root), Kottai karanthai (Root, Leaf, Flower, Seed), Mullangi (Root, Leaf, Seed), Neermuli (Flower, Seed) [5]. Apart from the above mentioned individual herbal drugs, there are certain polyherbal formulations launched by the various companies in market like “Tentex Forte, Tentex Royal (Himalaya Drug Company), Vita-Ex-Gold (Baidyanath) are also recommended for aphrodisiac activity.

 

In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of various parts of Trianthema decandra weed on the male sexual behavior in mice. The alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Trianthema decandra were also subjected to general short term toxicity studies in mice.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Plant material:

The fresh aerial parts of Trianthema decandra were collected and authenticated by Dr. K.Madhava Shatty, Assitant Professor, Dept. of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupathi, A.P.  The plant herbarium was prepared (PRIP-01/13) and deposited in the Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Pulla Reddy Institute of Pharmacy for further reference.

 

Preparation of Extract:

The whole plant was dried at room temperature under shade and coarsely powdered. The powdered material was subjected to hot extraction process using Soxhlet apparatus by successive solvent extraction method based on the increasing order of solvent polarity and solvent was removed by Buchi 461 Rotary vacuum evaporator. The alcoholic extract was then used for studying bio-activity [6].

 

Animals:

Healthy albino mice (20-25g) were used. They were fed with standard rodent pellet and water ad libitum and maintained under standard environmental condition for 7 days before the experiment for acute oral toxicity studies and investigation of Aphrodisiac property of alcoholic extract. The animal studies were performed as per rules and regulations in accordance to guidelines of CPCSEA with registration number 51/01/C/CPCSEA.

 

Acute Toxicity [7-8]:

To determine acute toxicity, if any, dose of up to 2g/kg (p.o.) of the alcoholic extract was suspended in gum acacia given to 5 groups each containing 6 mice. The control mice received gum acacia in an identical manner. The mice were observed continuously for 1hr for any gross behavioral changes and deaths, if any, and intermittently for the next 6 hrs and then again at 24 hrs after dosing. The behavioral changes observed were convulsion, hyperactivity, sedation, grooming, loss of righting reflex and increased respiration.

 

Mounting Behavior [9-10]:

A mount was operationally defined as the male assuming the copulatory position but failing to achieve intromission. To quantify mounting behavior, non-oestrous female mice were paired with males treated with drug for a period of 30 days. Animals were observed for 4 hr and their behaviors were scored as described [11]. Males were placed individually in a clear aquarium. After 15min acclimatization, a non-oestrous female was introduced into the arena. The number of mounts was recorded during a 15 min observation period at the start of 1st hr. then the female was separated for every hour, again the female was introduced and the latency and number of mounts was observed. All experiments were performed from 09.00 to 12.00hrs on sunny days (room temp 27 -280c) because the hormone levels are increased in the morning than in evening.  In similar manner Aphrodisiac activity of standard drug was evaluated.

 

To determine the effect of alcohol extract of aerial parts of Trianthema decandra on mounting, 5 groups were taken and each group contained 6 animals. The alcohol extract is suspended in Gum Acacia. The first group received 1.0% gum acacia and served as control. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg alcoholic extract respectively. The fifth group received 100mg/kg of Tentex forte.

 

Statistical Analysis [12]:

Data was shown as the mean ± SEM and analysed by one way ANNOVA followed by students T-test. The level of significance for all experiments was P<0.05*, 0.01** and 0.001**.

 

RESULTS:

The acute toxicity was determined by giving the dose up to 2g/kg (p.o.) of the alcoholic extract to mice. The control mice received gum acacia in an identical manner. The mice behavioral changes like convulsion, hyperactivity, sedation, grooming, loss of righting reflex and increased respiration were observed continuously for 6 hrs after dosing. The mice show no changes in behavior parameters and drug is concluded as safe.

Effect of Trianthema decandra on mounting behavior of mice: The male mice treated with alcoholic extract of Trianthema decandra shown excessive mounting behavior 1hr after the treatment as well as 4 hrs after the treatment as compared to control. This activity was found to a significant increase in total number of mounts and decrease in latency of mounts at 1, 2, 3 and 4th time intervals. But alcohol extract Trianthema decandra with 100mg/kg treated group has not shown any significant increase in number of mounts but decreased mounting latency at1,2,3 and 4thhrs (TableNo.1).


 

Table No.1 :  Effect of AETD on Mounting latency and Number of mounts in mice (Mounting behavior model)

Treatment

(per kg p.O.)

1 st hour mean ± SEM

2 nd hour mean ± SEM

3 rd hour mean ± SEM

4 th hour mean ± SEM

Mounting Latency

Number of Mounts

Mounting Latency

Number of Mounts

Mounting Latency

Number of Mounts

Mounting Latency

Number of Mounts

CONTROL (VEHICLE) 10 ML

585.00

± 14.325

5.833

 ± 0.4014

584.50

± 13.525

5.500

 ± 0.2236

588.67

± 13.089

4.500

± 0.2236

595.17

± 11.594

4.500

± 0.2236

STANDARD TENTEXFORTE100MG

211.33**  ± 32.544

15.333** ± 0.4216

219.17**

± 29.167

15.167**

 ±  0.3073

229.67** ± 30.827

14.333**

± 0.4944

227.83** ± 27.154

14.333**

± 0.4944

AETD (low dose)

528.33NS

 ± 11.949

6.500NS

± 0.2236

555.00NS

± 34.809

6.500NS

 ± 0.3416

516.00NS

 ± 26.445

5.667 NS

± 0.2108

512.67NS ± 28.437

5.167 NS

± 0.1667

AETD (med dose)

456.17**  ± 25.552

7.333*

± 0.3333

355.50** ± 25.734

7.000*

 ±  0.3651

320.50** ± 26.492

6.000*

± 0.3651

332.00** ± 23.414

6.000*

± 0.2582

AETD (high dose)

323.33**  ± 32.728

14.333** ± 0.3333

325.00** ±  34.521

14.000 **

± 0.3651

296.33** ± 27.643

13.333**

± 0.4216

293.00** ±  25.891

12.833**

± 0.4773

F One way ANOVA  df

37.18

29

29

171.52

29

29.904

29

197.82

29

35.997

29

167.91

29

41.475

29

174.62

n=6 in each group  Significance at *p<0.05, **p < 0.01 & ns-not-significant vs control

 


 

Graph No.1 : Effect of AETD on Mounting Latency in Mounting behavior model in mice.

 

 

Graph No. 2: Effect of AETD on Number of Mounts in Mounting behavior model in mice.

 

 

Fig. No.1: Male mice showing Mounting behavior

 

DISCUSSION:

The present investigation reveals that the alcoholic extract of Trianthema decandra can significantly enhance male sexual activity in normal mice. The effect of the drug on female sexual behaviour remains to be studied.  The drug may be of use for stimulating male sexual activity in cases where there are moderate sexual deficiencies. In the present study, the alcoholic extract of this drug was found to be devoid of any general conspicuous short term toxicity. Studies as well as systemic toxicity, if any, remain to be studied. However, since this drug is used in ethnomedical practices without any recorded toxicity, this plant is likely to be a safe drug. It has been reported that steroidal, triterpenoidal, flavanoids, alkaloids, phenols  constituents found in the plants posses fertility potentiating properties[13].

 

Generally male sexual behavior is regulated by a range of redundant mechanism involving several neuropeptides (oxytocin and galanin, with inhibitory activity) and neurotransmitters (mainly dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline). The stimulatory effect of oxytocin on male sexual behavior is proportionately greater in sexually sluggish than in sexually potent animals. In this connection it should be remembered that on ethnomedical practices this weed is also considered as a useful in the treatment of impotence. Active investigations are in progress in to explore the possible mechanisms of action.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

We thank Princiapl and Management Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Mahabubnagar, Telangana, and we are also thankful to Dr. Ashwaq Hussai, Assoc. Professor, PRIP, for their interest and encouragement.

 

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13.  Shukla VN, Khanuja SPS. Chemical, Pharmacological and Botanical studies on Pedalium murex. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences 26: 64-69, 2004. mainly based on phytotherapy(Azaizehet al., 2003).

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 23.01.2018          Modified on 22.02.2018

Accepted on 02.03.2018       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics.2018; 10(1): 13-16.

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2018.00003.4