Study of CNS Depressant activity of Ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia Flower

 

Chavan G. M.*, Vasaikar Rupali S., Patil J. K., Hasni Sayyed Hamid, Jain Akash, Vipul H. Jain

P S G V P M’s College of Pharmacy, Shahada, Dist-Nandurbar, 425409 (M.H.)

*Corresponding Author E-mail: ghanshyamchavan1@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Depression is a heterogeneous mood disorder characterized with regular negative moods, decreased physical activity, feelings of helplessness, and is caused by decreased brain levels of monoamines such as noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin. Therefore, drugs restoring the reduced levels of these monoamines in the brain either by inhibiting monoamine oxidase or by inhibiting reuptake of these neurotransmitters might be fruitful in the treatment of depression that has been classified and treated in a verity of ways. Ethanolic extract of Flowers of Madhuca longifolia was used as test drug in the doses 100, 200, 400 mg/kg on Mice of body weight 20-25gm for evaluation of CNS depressant activity on Actophotometer. As dose increased locomotor activity was decreased. The significantly decreased in locomotor activity investigated with 400mg/kg Ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia with % inhibition of 55.92% as compared with control group who received distilled water 1.64%. The Ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia has shown specifically very negligible decline in locomotor activity with all dose 100,200%400 mg/kg by 1.46, 12.85 and 55.92 respectively. All extract have showed reduction in the locomotor activity which may be due to the CNS depressant property of the drug.

 

KEYWORDS: CNS depressant, Madhuca longifolia, locomotor activity, Ethanolic extract, EEML.

 

 


1.    INTRODUCTION:

The universal role of plants in the treatments of disease is exemplified by their employment in all major system of medicine irrespective of the philosophical premise. (Lyle E Craker et al, 2002). Plants are having a great important to pharmacy to pharmaceutical Industry. Because these are rich source of drugs and of chemical for diversity for screening programs aimed at new drug discovery. (Shu: YZ et al 1998).

 

Most of the drugs which are in the Indian medicinal system are from plant source. The duration of the mediaeval period is known as between 8th century to 18th century AD (Heinrich Michael et al, 2004). Screening programs which are based on the part of the natural plant have achieve great success in identifying very useful chemical constituents such as anticancer agent like vinblastine and vincristine. Some cardio protective drugs like digoxin in digitoxin (Chopra RN, 1034) plants have at one time supplied virtually all culture with food. Clothing shelter and medicine approximately 10 of 15% of roughly 3,00,000 species of the higher pants have been used in traditional medicine system from last several years, as they are flows from generation to generation. The Indian subcontinent is enriched by verity of flora both aromatic and medicinal plants. This is due to the wide diversity of climatic condition available in India raging from deserts to swap lands. (Chopra RN, et al 1034).

Numerous types of the herbs have been well recognized catalogued by botanist from the high ranges of Himalaya (Khan Salehin et al, 2011). The world health organization is now actively focusing his attention towards the developing countries to encourage using herbal medicine, which they have been traditionally used for centuries. They have identified 3000 plants from forest of India. Herbal medicine can be defined as those products which are the most advantages of herbal contents wide variety of different component. (Patel Madhumita et al, 2010). It is estimated that 25% of modern medicine is derived from the plants means either their part is useful secondary metabolites are of prime important ( Bina S, 2010) (Marilyn Barrette et al 2007) there are several other for the adaptation of natural and traditional medicine as these are useful without or less side effect and contraindication. The herbal medicine is not only used from recent time but it has been frequently used since the last thousands of years. The knowledge of traditional medicine put on the light on the discovery of the new and potent medicine. The common difficulty that researcher and worker face with medicinal plants with about the purity of authentic information on the identity of the plant its habits the conditions required for its collection and then it utilization as a medicinal plant. (Agrawal S S et al, 2007) another things about medicinal plants is prerequisites information for safety and efficacy must be known by address quality Madhuca longifolia a plant of Indian origin having tremendous and therapeutic and potential used nut due to unawareness of people it is not fully utilized it be hidden from the ice of the researches and other botanist Mahua tress have a lot of pharmacological potency from treatment of several disease Madhuca longifolia is the forest tree found in central land northern India and Malaysia. It is common observed in various parts of the Indian subcontinent including Bangladesh in the folk medicinal system of Bangladesh various parts of the tree are used namely whole young plants leaves stems barks roots fruits flowers and seeds. (Bina S Siddiqui et al, 2010).

 

The different treatments ailments treated with these parts include tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cholera, paralysis, snakebite, debility tonsillitis, influenza and infections piles headache and infectious namely as blood purifier and antidote poison. (Rangari V D et al, 2009) have been isolated from the bark of this tree the two components showed significant inhibitory effects on both generation from neutrophils. (Landis Robyn et al). The Mahua tree is approximately 20 meters in height and possesses evergreen or semi evergreen foliage. Mahua tree is generally valued for its seeds which have abundant amount of oil bearing capacity and flowers which are mostly used in the production of alcoholic beverage and sweet candy. Spent flowers after fermentation are also used as animal fees. About 0.12 million tones seeds of Mahua tree produced in India after collecting it from different part country in organized doctors and utilized for oil extraction (Singh Ajay et al 1990). The estimated production of Mahua flowers is more than one million tons in the country. The collections of Mahua and seeds are encouraged by the state government of India as they poor as they provided support price it. On the other way it is sources of income for people as they collect and its government’s agency or local by. (Patel Madhumita, 2010) with development of photochemical industries in India domestic requirements for various medicinal plants grow considerably. (Kokate C K et al, 2008)

 

Local names:

English [Indian butter tree], Hindi [Mahua, Mohwa, Maua], Bengali [Mahwa], Marathi [Mohwara], Gujrati [madhuda], Oriya [mahula]. (Shuz YZ 1998, Heinrich Michael 2004).

 

Phytochemistry:

Flower: Vitamins A and C

 

Bark: ethylcinnamate, sesquiterene alcohol, α-terpeneol, 3β-monocaprylic ester eythrodiol and 3β- capryloxyoleanolic acid α and β amyrinacetates.

 

Fruits: α-and β-amylin acetates.

 

Nut shell: n-hexacosanolquercetin and dihydroquercetin, β-sitosterol and its 3β Dglucoside.

 

Seeds: arachidic, linoleic, oleic, myrisic, palmitic and stearic acids, α-alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and Lucien, lysine, methionine, proline,serine, threonine, myricetin, quercetin, Mi-saponin A And B.

 

Leaves: β-carotene and xanthophyll’s erthrodiol, palmitic acid, myricetin and its 3-o- arabinose and 3-o-L-Rhamnoside, quercetin and its 3-galactoside; 3β-caproxyand 3β-palmitoxy-olean-12-en-28-ol, oleanolic acid.

 

Biological Source:

It consists of dried flower of the plant of Madhuca longifolia family Sapotaceae.

 

Chemical Composition

Table 1: Chemical Composition of Mahua flower

Chemical Element

Presence in %

Moisture

18.6

Protein

4.4

Fat

0.5

Total sugar

72.9

Fiber

1.7

Ash

2.7

(Shashikant Vilas Ghade, et al 2008)

 

 

2.    MATERIAL AND METHOD:

Collection of plant:

The plant was collected from the tropical regions of Jamana and Islampur and was identified by a Dr. S.K. Tayade Head of Department of Botany, P.S.G.V.P Mandals Arts, Commerce and Science College, Shahada. The plant material was made free from soil and other adulterants and vegetative debris. Madhuca longifolia flower was collected from period between February to June. We usually collect the orange brown flower and get it dry within 15 to 20 days in air dry. After drying we get the reddish brown flower.

 

Fig 1: Madhuca longifolia Flower

 

Authentication of Traditional Drug:

 

Fig 2: Madhuca longifolia Plant

 

Extraction of Medicinal Plants:

The selected drug is subjected for extraction using two different methods namely Soxhlet extraction and simple maceration. The resultant extracts from both methods were subsequently exposed for CNS depressant activity.

 

1. Soxhlet Extraction:

The freshly obtained flowers of Madhuca longifolia were air dried for several days. The dried flowers of Madhuca longifolia were crushed into small pieces and grinded into the coarse powder. The moderately coarse powder was subjected for extraction using solvent Ethanol in Soxhlet apparatus. The developed alcoholic extract is dried using rotator flash evaporator.

 

 

2. Maceration Processes:

The whole or coarse powder of crude drug was placed in a stoppered container with the ethanol as solvent and allowed to stand at room temperature for a period of at least 7 days. The frequent agitation was provided until the soluble matters have dissolved. The mixture then is drained, the marc (the damp solid material) is pressed, and the combined liquids are clarified by filtration after standing. The developed alcoholic extract is dried using rotator flash evaporator. (Kalaivani M, et al 2013)

 

TOXOCOLOGICAL STUDIES:

Gross behavioral and acute oral toxicity studies:

Gross behavioral and acute oral toxicity studies (LD 50) of the extracts were determined as suggested by turner. The mice weighing between 20-25g were selected. The mice were grouped into 6 mice per group each extract at different dose levels (100, 200, 400 mg/kg). Dissolved in distilled water were administered once orally per dose level to the overnight fasted animals. The group receiving water (1ml/kg) was kept as a control. The animals were subjected primary screening studies at 1 hour. Approval by local Animal Ethical Committee of department of Pharmacology. (Kalaivani. M, et al June 2013).

 

Experimental Animals:

Either sex Swiss mice (20–25g) were used in pharmacological tests. The animals were kept for 12hrs day and 12hrs night cycle. All animal were get physical check-up by veterinary doctor. The animals were feed libitum with standard food pallets purchased from Nutrivet Life Sciences, Pune and water except when fasting was required in the course of the study.

 

Selection of dose:

The dose was selected 100, 200, 400mg/kg of test sample, and Diazepam 2mg/kg from the acute toxicity study.

 

Drugs:

All drugs and alcoholic extracts were freshly prepared on the day of the experiments. A control group received distilled water (10ml/kg) as vehicle. Diazepam (Svizera Healthcare). 2mg/kg a conventional sedative were used as positive control.

 

Pharmacological Evaluations:

The activity of ethanolic extract from Madhuca Longifolia on the central nervous system was then studied, using a battery of behavioral tests used in psychopharmacology. We analyzed the effect of different doses of the ethanolic extracts (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and (Diazepam 2mg/kg) for their sedative and hypnotic activities.

 

Experimental protocols:

One hour time interval between drug administration and behavioral tests were maintained in case of oral administrations respectively. Three groups of animal were taken and each group contains six animals.

 

Procedure for determination of CNS Depressant Activity:

The animals were divided into 4 groups and each group of animal contained 6 animals. Weight the animal and number them accordingly. Among the 4 groups the first group was injected after 1hrs. The locomotors activity of each animal noted by actophotometer (Digital Actophotometer), for 5min. the second group was injected (Dose 2mg/kg) and after 1hrs. The locomotors activity was observed for 5 min. flower ethanol extract was injected in mice locomotors activity scored for 5 min. The animal study was approved Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC), formed by (CPCSE) committee New Delhi.

 

Weigh and number of animals. Use at least 5-6 mice. Inject diazepam to each mouse orally. Note the time for injection. Note the time of onset of action as the animal loses it righting reflex, i.e. falls asleep. Place the animals on their backs leaving sufficient space in between two animals. Note the time of recovery from sleep as the animal turns to recover its normal posture. Calculate the onset duration of action of diazepam. (S.K. Kulkarni et al).

 

Locomotors activity:

The Spontaneous motor activity was measured using an actophotometer. The movement of the animal cut off a beam of light falling on the photocell and a count was recorded and displayed digitally. Each mouse was placed individually in the actophotometer for 5 min and basal activity score was obtained. 1 h after treatment, mice was placed again in the actophotometer for recording the activity score. (P. Balaji et al 2012).

 

Fig 3: Activity of Mouse Reading

 

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

In Actophotometer, 100, 200, 400mg/kg dose of Ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia significantly reduced locomotor activity dose dependent manner. As dose increased locomotor activity was decreased. The significantly decreased in locomotor activity investigated with 400mg/kg Ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia by 55.92% as compared with control 1.64%. The Ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia has shown specifically in locomotor activity with all dose 100, 200, 400mg/kg by 1.46, 12.85 and 55.92 respectively. All extract have showed reduction in the locomotor activity which may be due to the CNS depressant property of the drug. The results are shown in the table. The graph has been plotted drug vs. % inhibition. At low dose, less deviation in locomotor score observed.

 

Table 02: Assessment of locomotor activity of Ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia

Sr.no.

Treatment

Reading

% Inhibition

Before

After

 

1.

Control

146.2±15.47

143.8±14.3

1.64%

2.

Standard

65.8±7.65

28.8±6.8

74.05%

3.

100 (EEML)

82±20.49

80.8±19.28

1.46%

4.

200(EEML)

146.2±15.47

127.4±18.81

12.85%

5.

400(EEML)

111±3.06

29±6.6

55.92%

n=6 the values are reported as Mean ± SEM for the Number of mice shown in parenthesis*P<0.001 verses control. (Analysis of Variance and Dumette’s test as the post hoc test).

 

 

4. CONCLUSION:

From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that the ethanolic extracts of Madhuca longifolia possesses significant CNS depressant activity by performing, locomotor activity dose dependent reduction in motor activity in mice. Present work was a preliminary effort, and further detailed investigation plants are the important economical source of a number of well-established drug looking upon wide prospects and potential of Madhuca longifolia various purposes; it is worthwhile to cultivate this plant on large scale especially on unproductive and wasteland. Generally this plant Madhuca longifolia is known as only for it liquor making purpose, but one have to come forward to change the thinking of unaware people.

5. REFERENCES:

1.      K. N. Akshatha, S. Mahadeva Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi; International Journal of Life science and Pharmacy Research; Vol 3/Issue 1/Jan-Mar 2013.

2.      Lyle E Craker, James Esimon: Herbs Spice and Medicinal plants, CBS Publishers and distributers, Edition 1, Vol. III, 2002:26.

3.      Shu Y Z: Recent Natural product based drug development, a pharmaceutical industries perspective, Journal of Natural Products, 1998(61)1053.

4.      Chopra R N, Nayer S L, Chopara I C: Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plant, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resource. CSIR, New Delhi, First Edition 1034.

5.      Miller Lucinda G: Herbal Medicinal, A Clinicians guide, Viva book private Limited, New Delhi, Edition 1, 2005:2-3.

6.      Heinrich Michael, Barnes Joanne, Gibbons Simon: Fundamental of Pharmacognosy and Phototherapy, Churchill Livingstone Publication, and Edition 1, 2004:170.

7.      Khan Salehin, Zahan Dilara, Anti hyperglysemic Activity Studies with Methanol Extract of Madhuca Indica J.F. Gmel leaves and Paederia Foetida L. stem in mice, Advances in natural and applied sciences, 2011, 5: 122-126.

8.      Patel Madhumita, Naik S N: Flowers of Madhuca Indica J. F. Gmel: Present Status and Future Perspectives, Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2010, 1: 438-443.

9.      Bina S Siddiqui, Shazia Khan, M Nadeem Kardar: A New Isoflavon from the Madhuca latifolia, Natural Product Research, 2010; 24:76-80.

10.   Rangari V D: Traditional Drug of India, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Career publication, Nasik, Edition 2, Vol. II, 2009: 01-04.

11.   Marilyn Barrett: The Hand Book of Clinically Tested Herbal Remedies, CVS Publisher and distributors, New Delhi, Vol. I, 2007:03-05.

12.   Agrawal S S, Paridhavi M: Heebal Drug Technology, Universities Press (India) Hyderabad Edition 1, 2007: 01-07.

13.   Landis Robyn, Khalsa Karta Purakh Singh: Herbal Defence against Illness.

14.   Singh Ajay and Singh I.S: Chemical Evaluation of Mahua (Madhuca indica) Seed: food chemistry 1990:221-228.

15.   Kokate C K, Purohit A P, Ghokhale S B, Pharmacognosy, Nirali Prakashan, Fourty First Edition, 2008.

16.   Behl P. N., Sriwasrawa G. S.: Herbs Useful in Dermatological Therapy, CBS Publishers and Distributor’s, New Delhi, Edition 2, 2002: 94-95.

17.   Gopalan C, Rama Sastri B V and Balasubramanyam S C: Nutritive Values of Indian Foods, National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, Hyderabad, India, 2004.

18.   Benerji D SN, Rajini K, Rao B Srinivasa: Studies on Physio-chemical and Nutritional Parameter for the Production of Ethanol from mahua flower Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae-3090 through Submerged Fermentation, Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology, 2010; 2:46-50.

19.   Kalaivani. M, International Journal of Research Publication, Volume 3, June 2013.

20.   S. K. Kulkarni, Text book of Experimental Pharmacology, Third Revised and Enlarged Edition, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi- 110 034.

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 24.09.2019         Modified on 15.10.2019

Accepted on 31.10.2019      ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacology & Pharmacodynamics.2019; 11(4):127-131.

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2019.00022.3