Antidiabetic Activity of Mukia maderaspatana (L) Roem in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

 

Vadivelan R*, Dhanabal SP, Patil Mohan, Shanish A, Elango K and Suresh B

J.S.S. College of Pharmacy (Off Campus of JSS University, Mysore) Ooty, Nilgiris-643001

 

ABSTRACT:

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Though different types of oral hypoglycemic agents are available, there is a growing interest in herbal remedies due to effectiveness, minimal side effects in clinical experience and relatively low cost. We investigated effect of oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana in diabetic and normal rats for hypoglycemic activity and antihypergylcemic activity. Diabetes was induced in male wistar albino rats of body weight 150-200 g by intraperitoneal administration of ice-cold aqueous alloxan monohydrate at dose of 150 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of blood glucose from the tail vein at 0, 1, 3, and 5 hr post treatment with plant extract. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. The fasting blood glucose levels of diabetic untreated rats were significantly higher than those of normal. The ethanolic extracts of Mukia maderaspatana at 100 and 200 mg/kg showed 20 % and 24.4% decrease in blood glucose level respectively in diabetic rats after 5 h of treatment. Treatment with glibenclamide at 0.2 g/kg dose level show 31.8% decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats. The present study revealed that the oral administration of ethanolic extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses exhibited a significant antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetes and also no hypoglycemic effect was observed in normal rats.

 

 

KEY WORDS: Mukia maderaspatana; Alloxan diabetic rats; Antidiabetic activity and hypoglycemic activity.

 

1. INTRODUCTION:

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and alterations in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, associated with absolute or relative deficiencies in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. Though different types of oral hypoglycemic agents are available along with insulin for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, there is a growing interest in herbal remedies, due to the side effects associated with these therapeutic agents. Because of perceived effectiveness, minimal side effects in clinical experience and relatively low cost, herbal drugs are widely prescribed even when their biologically active compounds are unknown (Valiathan, 1998).

 

Mukia maderaspatana belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. The plant is bitter, sweet and is found throughout India. Seeds, leaves and roots are used for various medicinal purpose like refrigerant, carminative, aperient, vulnerary, sudorific expectorant, anodyne and tonic. It is useful in vitiated conditions of pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, flatulence, colic, constipation, ulcers, cough, asthma, neuralgia, notalgia, odontalgia and vertigo (Dinesh, 2007). This study was designed to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana at dose levels of 100 & 200 mg/kg in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats for hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity.

 

 


2. MATERIAL AND METHOD:

2.1. Collection of plant material:

The entire plant of Mukia maderaspatana was collected during June 2008, from the forests of Polavaram in Andra Pradesh. The plant species was identified and authenticated by Botanist, Government Botanical Garden, and Udhagamandalam. The voucher specimen was deposited in the herbarium of the department of Pharmacognosy, JSS college of Pharmacy, Ooty

 

2.2. Preparation of the ethanolic extract:

The collected fresh plant materials were dried in shade (2 days) and then dried in a hot air oven at 2500C for three days and they were made in to coarse powder with the use of mixer grinder. The powder of entire plant of Mukia maderaspatana obtained were weighed and transferred to a round bottomed flask. Then it was extracted with 95% ethanol for 24 hour in soxhlet apparatus. The extract of ethanol was concentrated and stored in vacuum desiccators (Ghosh and Bhattacharya, 2004).

 

2.3. Animals:

Healthy Wistar albino rats of either sex (150-200g) were selected for present study. Animals were obtained from J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, Animal House, Ooty, India, maintained under standard laboratory condition and the experimental protocol was approved from Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC). The animal experiments were carried out as per CPCSEA guidelines and after the IAEC approval.

 

2.4. Induction of Diabetes:

Diabetes was induced in male wistar albino rats, aged 4 months (150-200g)) by intraperitoneal administration of ice-cold aqueous alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg body weight) by the method described earlier (Kameswara et al., 1999). After a fortnight, rats with marked hyperglycemia (fasting blood glucose >250 mg/dl) were selected and used for the study. All the animals were allowed free access to tap water and pellet diet and maintained at room temperature in plastic cages.

 

2.5. Experimental design:

The rats were divided into seven groups, consisting six animals in each group.

Group 1  Normal untreated rats

Group 2 Diabetic untreated rats

Group 3 Normal rats treated with 100 mg/kg b.w. of         Ethanolic extract

Group 4 Normal rats treated with 200 mg/kg b.w. of        Ethanolic extract

Group 5 Diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg b.w. of  Ethanolic extract

Group 6 Diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg b.w. of       Ethanolic extract

Group 7 Diabetic rats treated with 0.2 g/kg b.w. of           Glibenclamide

 

After an overnight fast, the plant extract suspended in distilled water was fed to the experimental rats by oral feeding needle. Group 1 and Group 2 rats were fed distilled water alone. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of blood glucose from the tail vein at 0, 1, 3, and 5 h after feeding the plant extract. Blood glucose was measured by using glucometer and the results were compared with those of 7 th group of rats which were treated with 0.2 g/kg b.w. of glibenclamide (oral hypoglycemic agent).

2.6. Statistical analysis:

The results are expressed as mean ±S.D. Significance of differences between normal and diabetic groups were determined using the Student’s t-test.

 

3. RESULTS:

The phytochemical screening of Mukia maderaspatana revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenol, proteins & amino acids. The effect of the different doses of ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana on the fasting blood glucose levels of both normal and diabetic rats given in Table 1. The fasting blood glucose levels of diabetic untreated rats (Group 2) were significantly higher than those of normal untreated rats (Group 1). The ethanolic extracts of Mukia maderaspatana at 100 and 200 mg/kg showed 20 % and 24.4% decrease in blood glucose level respectively in diabetic rats after 5 h of treatment. Treatment with glibenclamide at 0.2 g/kg dose level show 31.8% decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats. The oral administration of ethanolic extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses exhibited a significant antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetes and also no hypoglycemic effect was observed in normal rats.

 

4. DISCUSSION:

In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of Mukia maderaspatana at 100 and 200 mg/kg showed 20 % and 24.4% decrease in blood glucose level respectively in diabetic rats after 5 h of treatment. Treatment with glibenclamide at 0.2 g/kg dose level show 31.8% decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats. The oral administration of ethanolic extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses exhibited a significant antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetes and also no hypoglycemic effect was observed in normal rats. Hence the ethanolic extracts may be considered to have antihyperglycemic active principles without causing any hypoglycemic effect unlike insulin and other synthetic drugs. The phytochemical screening of Mukia maderaspatana revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenol, proteins & amino acids. Flavonoids, sterols/triterpenoids, alkaloids and phenolics are known to be bioactive antidiabetic principles (Oliver, 1986; Ivorra et al., 1989; Atta-Ur-Rhemann and Khurshid Zaman, 1989; Kameswara et al., 1997). Flavonoids are known to regenerate the damaged beta cells in the alloxan diabetic rats (Chakravarthy et al., 1980). Phenolics are found to be effective antihyperglycemic agents (Manickam et al., 1997).

 

The antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana may be due to the presence of more than one antihyperglycemic principles and their synergistic properties. In this study, the antihyperglycemic activity caused by glibenclamide in alloxan-induced diabetic rats is an indication of the presence of some beta cells, as glibenclamide is known to stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells. The ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana  may have stimulating effect on the remnant beta cells . However, further experiments are required to elucidate the exact mechanism of action.  The ethanolic extract did not produce any hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. The normal rats being in homeostasis, these plant extract could cause less suppression of normal regulatory mechanisms involved in carbohydrate metabolism (Vats et al., 2002).

 

 


TABLE 1: Effect of ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana on fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dl) of normal and diabetic rats (Mean ± S.D.)

Groups

Blood glucose at different hours after the treatment

0 hr

1hr

3hr

5hr

1

66.4 ± 7.8

66.1 ± 7.6

65.5 ± 5.6

67.1 ± 5.1

2

264.2 ± 9.2*

261.7 ± 6.4

260.0 ± 3.2

258.0 ± 9.5

3

71.7 ± 5.1

78.9 ± 4.2

73.6 ± 4.7

72.0 ± 4.9

4

69.5 ± 8.2

84.5 ± 3.2

70.3 ± 4.1

68.5 ± 7.6

5

273.8 ± 11.4*

261.3 ± 9.8

240.7 ± 10.7† (12.1%)

220.1 ± 11.6† (20 %)

6

277.5 ± 6.4*

259.0 ± 10.0

226.8 ± 11.5† (18.2%)

209.6 ± 11.6† (24.4%)

7

264.9 ± 8.1*

244.2 ± 4.2† (7.8%)

202.8 ± 5.8† (23.4%)

180.6 ± 8.3† (31.8%)

The values given in parentheses are percentage of decrease in blood glucose.

*P <0.0001 compared with the initial level of blood glucose (0 h) of normal rats.

†P <0.0001 compared with the initial level of blood glucose (0 h) of the rats in the respective group.

 

 


Further studies will be focused on determination of the mechanism(s) of action, as well as on the isolation of bioactive principles.

 

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

The authors are grateful to the management, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy,(Off campus of JSS University, Mysore)  Ooty – 643001, India for providing the necessary infrastructure to carry out this research work in successful manner.

 

6. REFERENCES:

1.      Atta-Ur-Rhemann, Khurshid Zaman. Medicinal plants with hypoglycemic activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1989; 26: 1–55.

2.      Chakravarthy BK, Gupta S, Gambir SS, Gode KD. Pancreatic beta cell regeneration: A novel antidiabetic mechanism of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 1980; 12: 123–127.

3.      Dinesh valke. Flowers of India [Mukia maderaspatana]. 2007 Sep 14[cited 2008 May 15] Available from: http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au

4.      Ghosh K, Bhattacharya TK. Chemical constituents of leaves of Mukia maderaspatana. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2004; 26(1): 51-3.

5.      Ivorra MD, Paya M, Villar A. A review of Natural Products and Plants as Potent antidiabetic drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1989; 27 (3): 243–275.

6.      Kameswara Rao,  Giri R, Kesavulu MM, Appa Rao. Herbal medicine: in the management of diabetes mellitus. Manphar Vaidhya Patrika.  1997; 1 (4): 33–35.

7.      Kameswara Rao B, Kesavulu MM, Giri, R, Appa Rao. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Momordica cymbalaria, Hook fruit powder in Alloxan diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999; 67: 103–109.

8.      Manickam M, Ramanathan M, Farboodinay Jahromi MA, Chansouria JPN, Ray, AB. Antihyperglycemic activity of phenolics from Pterocarpus marsupium. Journal of Natural Products. 1997; 60: 609–610.

9.      Oliver-Bever B. Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa. Cambridge University Press, London. 1986: 245–267.

10.    Valiathan MS. Healing plants. Current Science. 1998;75 (11): 1122–1126.

11.    Vats V, Grover JK, Rathi SS. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, Ocimum sanctum Linn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn, in normal and alloxanised diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.  2002;79: 95–100.

 

Received on 30.11.2009

Accepted on 08.01.2010     

© A&V Publication all right reserved

Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics 2(1): Jan. –Feb. 2010: 78-80