Chamomile: A Review

 

Sachin Aglawe*, Amol Gayke, Kavita Sharma, Sonali Jadhav, Sanjivani Gore, Bhagyashri Pandit, Sonali Valate, Mayuri Wagh

S. N. D. College of Pharmacy, Babhulgaon, Tal: Yeola, Dist: Nashik-423401.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sachinglw8@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is common composite spices and herbs that used worldwide. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. They are used as home spices, health foods, and herb teas and their extracts are used in some pharmaceutical preparations. It is a highly favored and much used medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicine. This article briefly reviews the medicinal uses along with botany and cultivation techniques. Since chamomile is a rich source of natural products, details on chemical constituents of essential oil and plant parts as well as their pharmacological properties are included. Chamomile is used mainly as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic, also antispasmodic and mildly sudorific. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. There are few adverse effects in children. However, children who are allergic to ragweed, asters, and chrysanthemums should use chamomile with caution. Researchers indicated that the pharmacological effect of German chamomile is mainly connected with its essential oils. Environmental conditions and stresses can alter active substances of chamomile. This review focuses on Extraction, uses, and Chemical constituent with their activity of Chamomile.

 

KEYWORDS: Matricaria chamomilla, Chamazuline, Anti-inflammatory, Asteraceae.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Herbal medicines have a long history of traditional use and play an important role in the primary health care of developing countries.(30,13,18) The term "herbo" means plants while "some" means cell like over the past centuries phytochemical and phytopharmacological science established the composition, biological activity and health promoting benefits of numerous botanical products.

 

The use of herbal remedies has been around for centuries and their use in both western and eastern societies are increasing. The world health organization (WHO) estimates that up to 80% of the world's population still depends on herbal medicines. Chamomile is a common name for several daisies like plants of the family Asteraceae. Chamomile is an important medicinal and aromatic plant. Chamomile was first used in 13th century. The spelling chamomile is a British derivation from the French.(20,21) Chamomile is also called as karpurapuspa in Sanskrit and Baboona or Babuna in Hindi. Chamomile and its essential oil have been used in Ayurveda.

 

Synonyms: Matricaria chamomila.(2,3,7,9,10,13,18)

There are two types of chamomile: (9,10,18)

1.     German chamomile: Chamomile, Hungarian chamomile, Matricaria, Blue chamomile, Sweet false chamomile.

2.     Roman chamomile: English chamomile, Sweet chamomile.

 

Biological source:(5,8,18)

Chamomile consists of dried flower of chamomilia recutitia (German chamomile), chamaemelum nobile (Roman chamomile) belonging to family- Asteraceae.

 

Geographic source:(4,10,18)

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilia L.) is one of the important medicinal herb native to southern and eastern Europe.

 

It is also grown in Germany, Hungary, France, Russian, Yugoslavia, Brazil, Newzealand, Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, North India, Japan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Cuba, and Argentina.

 

In India it is grown in Jammu-Kashmir, Punjab, Maharashtra, and Uttar-Pradesh.

 

Source: Flowers.(17)

 

Macroscopy: (4,7,9)

Stem           : Erect, heavily ramified.

Height        : 10 to 80 cm.

Color          : Downy and grayish green in color.

Leaves       : long and narrow.

Flower        : Diameter - 10 to 30 mm

Color          : Golden yellow, white flower.

Fruit            : Yellowish brown acne.

 

Botanical classification:(4,17)

Kingdom  : Plantae.

Order         : Asterales.

Clade        : Asterides, Angiosperm, Eudicots.

Genus        : Matricaria.

Species      : M. Chamomile.

 

Extraction of Chamomile:(19)

Dry chamomile flowers were weighed and crushed to powder with a marble pestle and mortar and a 5% w/v suspension was prepared in a flask by adding hot boiled water. The flask was then placed on a shaker (200 rpm) for 4 h and the temperature was maintained at 37°C. Essentially similar procedure was used for organic solvent extraction using methanol, ethanol and propanol (5% w/v) and kept on shaker for 4 h at 200 rpm. After shaking, the flask was brought to room temperature the suspension was filtered through a series of Whatman filters and finally passed through 0.22micron filter (Millipore, Billerica, MA). The filtered aqueous extract was freeze dried whereas organic extracts were dried at room temperature and stored at −20°C until use. 

Uses:

Dried flowers of chamomile are used for herbal teas. The main use of Chamomile is anti-inflammatory, antiphalogistic properties.(1,2,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,18,11,12,15,16,17).

Anticancer, common cold, cardiovascular condition, colic/ diarrhea conditions, eczema, gastrointestinal conditions, hemorrhoids, health promotion, mucositis, osteoporosis, sleep aid/sedation, anxiety, seizure, diabetes, sore throat/ hoarseness, vaginitis, wound healing, flavoring agent etc.(1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13)

 

It is also used for toothache, worms, asthma, appetite enhancement, bladder problems, bleeding, blood purifying, bronchitis, children’s disease, colitis, fever, corns, cramp's, dandruff, dizziness, ulcer, drug withdrawal, earache, eye problems, headache, insomnia, jaundice, kidney problem, menstrual problem, migraine, nervous disorder, parasites, splin disorder, swelling, antianxiety, carminative, aromatherapy, softening, soothing effect on the skin.(2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18)

 

Flowers of Roman chamomile are used in manufacturing of herb beer and ale. It also causes uterine contraction that can invoke miscarriage in pregnant women. (11, 12, 15, 16, 17)

 

Chemical constituent with their activities:(2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 17, 18)

Chemical constituents

Activity

1. Volatile oil

Anti-inflammatory, Bactericidal, Antiphlogistic, Fungicidal, Antispasmodic, Analgesic, Antiseptic, Antipyretic, Antianaphylatic, Spasmolytic, Carminative

a) Chamazulene

Antioxidant, Sedative

b) Bisabolol

Anti-corruption, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-microbial

2. Polyphenol compounds

a) Luteolin

 

Anti-inflammatory, Antihypertensive

b) Apigenin

Anticancer

c) Quercetin

Anticancer, Antiarthritis

d) Limonene

Anticancer

3. Spiroether

Antispasmodic, Anxiolytic, Sedative

4. Choline

Liver disease

5. Bodegold

Sedative, Anxiolytic, Antispasmodic

6. Apple pectin

Antidiarrheal in children

 

Other chemical constituents:(4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 17, 18)

Isobutyl isobutanoate, 2-Methylbutyl isobutanoate, Isobutyl angelate, Trans-pinocarveol, Estragol, Alpha-Bisabolol, A and B Bisabolol oxide, Spathulenol chamomillol, Phytol, Isophytol, Methyl palmitate.

 

Route of administration:(9, 10)

Drug are administered to the body by various routes, depending upon the physiochemical properties of the drug, patient condition, desired onset of action and desired site of action.

 

 

Drugs are administered through:

A) Orally

B) Topically

C) Buccal (Rinse gargle)

 

Dose(17)

Sr. No.

Age group (in years)

Route of administration

Quantity of drug

1

Children (2-4years)

Oral

0.3-0.6 gm dried flowers/day

2

Adolescents (5-9 years)

Oral

0.3-0.6 gm dried flowers/day

3

Adolescents (10-14 years)

Oral

0.8-24gm dried flowers/ day

4

Adults>14 years)

Oral

0.8-24gm dried flowers/ day

 

Side effects:

Chamomile causes severe allergic reactions drowsiness. (1,5)

 

Due to higher dose it causes eye irritation, eczema, emesis, vomiting.(9, 10, 11, 17, 18)

 

Pharmaceutical products/Marketed preparation:

Tinctures, Ointments, Homeopathic tablet, Deodorants, Ophthalmic products, Topical skin lotion, Mouthwash, Teabag, Soap, Shampoo, Beverages, Bulk herb, Powder, Herbal tea, Capsule, Gum, Toothpaste, Synase nasal spray.

 

REFERENCE:

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11.   "Chamomile".  Available From: Drugs.com. 9 October 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2019.

12.   Sarris, J; Panossian, A; Schweitzer, I; Stough, C; Scholey, A (December 2011). "Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety, and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence". European Neuro-psychopharmacology. 21 (12): 841–860.doi:10.1016/j. euroneuro.2011.04.002. PMID 21601431.

13.   "Chamomile". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. September 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2018.

14.   "Roman chamomile". MedlinePlus, US National Institutes of Health. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2014.

15.   Grieve, Maude (1931). A Modern Herbal.

16.   Culpepper, Nicholas (1600s). The Complete Herbal.

17.   Michael Castleman the New Healing Herbs: The Classic Guide to Nature's Best Medicines. At Google Books.

18.   Gardiner P (1999). Chamomile (Matricaria recutita, Anthemis nobilis). Longwood Herbal Task Force Press, pp. 1-21.

19.   Extraction, Characterization, Stability and Biological Activity of Flavonoids Isolated from Chamomile Flowers.  Available From: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2809371.

 

 

 

Received on 13.11.2019         Modified on 30.12.2019

Accepted on 21.01.2020       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics.2020; 12(1):12-14.

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2020.00003.8