A Vaccine is a preparation, which is used to stimulate immune system, improves immunity to a particular disease. Vaccine can be prophylactic or therapeutic. Most vaccine registered for use is designed to prevent or control acute human infections. The conventional approaches to vaccine Research and Development are as Isolation and Characterization of disease causing organism, to discover methods to effectively immunize and protect susceptible host and to develop assay to measure immune response and identity immune correlates of protection, Manufacturing and Preclinical development, Clinical and Field testing in humans. New approaches to vaccine development are as use of anti-idiotype antibody preparation to mimic B-cells epitops, Synthesis of oligo or polypeptides that reflect naturally occurring a sequence of protein of pathogen. rDNA Transfection of cells with inserted DNA/CDNA into genome of other viruses and bacteria. New prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines will prevent and potentially cure disease. New delivery systems for human vaccines are being developed to enhance cellular and Mucosal immunity, as well as ease of use, advances in current vaccines such as conjugated pneumococcal vaccines for adults, nasal spray vaccines for Influenza and adult a cellular pertussis vaccine will provide an efficient way to of longlasting protective immunity. There is as of today no TH1 adjuvant efficient in humans. Such adjutants are needed to develop powerful therapeutic vaccines against cancer or chronic infectious diseases. New vaccine delivery technology will provide easier delivery routs such as transcutaneous, depot, nasal, and oral delivery without compromising efficacy.
Cite this article:
Patil SM, Maske AP Sapkale GN, Kure AB. Unique Approaches to Vaccine Development Formulation and Delivery. Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2010; 2(2):99-102 .