Author(s): Saloni S. Chhajed, Mayuri V. Mali, Azam Z. Shaikh, S. P. Pawar, Ritik. S. Jain


DOI: 10.52711/2321-5836.2022.00027   

Address: Saloni S. Chhajed, Mayuri V. Mali, Azam Z. Shaikh, S. P. Pawar, Ritik. S. Jain
Department of Pharmaceutics P.S.G.V.P.M’s College of Pharmacy, Shahada.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2022

During immune surveillance, the host provides defense versus foreign antigens. By targeting surface antigens expressed on tumor cells, monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated efficacy as cancer therapeutics. Recent successful antibody-based strategies have focused on enhancing antitumor immune responses by targeting immune cells, irrespective of tumor antigens. The use of antibodies to woodcut pathways inhibiting the endogenous immune response to cancer, known as checkpoint tampon therapy, has stirred up a unconfined deal of excitement among scientists, physicians, and patients alike. Clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of antibodies that woodcut the T lamina inhibitory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte various kinds of immunotherapy treatment for cancer are either misogynist to the public or are in the process of clinical trials. Immunotherapy treatments have the potential to treat cancer with significantly less toxicity than chemotherapy and radiation treatments. An accent on cellular infusion as a method of either enhancing the immune system by creating an environment for se-questering the host immune system to wade cancer cells or increasingly directly inserting cells to di-rectly wade cancer cells will be provided in this review. Various forms of cancer vaccines are moreover discussed in this paper as an important speciality in immunotherapy. This review seeks to describe various methodologies associated with overseeing immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer.

Cite this article:
Saloni S. Chhajed, Mayuri V. Mali, Azam Z. Shaikh, S. P. Pawar, Ritik. S. Jain. Cancer: Immunology and Immunotharapy. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics.2022;14(3):159-4. doi: 10.52711/2321-5836.2022.00027

Saloni S. Chhajed, Mayuri V. Mali, Azam Z. Shaikh, S. P. Pawar, Ritik. S. Jain. Cancer: Immunology and Immunotharapy. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics.2022;14(3):159-4. doi: 10.52711/2321-5836.2022.00027   Available on:

1.    Gravitz L. Cancer Immunotherapy. Nature. 2013; 504: S1 2. Palucka K. Q&A:   Evidence presenter. Interview by Marian Turner. Nature. 2013; 504: S9. 60
2.    Palucka K. Q&A: Evidence presenter. Interview by Marian Turner. Nature. 2013; 504: S9
3.    Humphries C. Adoptive cell therapy: Honing that killer instinct.Nature. 2013; 504: S13-5.
4.    Weintraub K. Drug development: Releasing the brakes. Nature. 2013; 504: S6-8
5.    Littman DR. Releasing the brakes on cancer immunotherapy. Cell. 2015; 162: 1186-90.
6.    Hodi FS, O’Day SJ, Mc Dermott DF, Weber RW, Sosman JA, Haanen JB, et al. Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2010; 363: 711-23.
7.    Ishida Y, Agata Y, Shibahara K, Honjo T. Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, Pauken KE, Wherry EJ. Overcoming T cell exhaustion in infection and cancer. Trends Immunol. 2015; 36: 265-76upon programmed cell death. EMBO J. 1992; 11: 3887-95.
8.    Fialkow PJ. Clonal origin of human tumors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976; 458: 283-321.
9.    Fidler IJ, Kripke ML. Metastasis results from preexisting variant cells within a malignant tumor. Science. 1977; 197: 893-5.
10.    Nowell PC. The clonal evolution of tumor cell populations. Science. 1976; 194: 23-8.
11.    Mueller MM, Fusenig NE. Friends or foes — bipolar effects of the tumour stroma in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004; 4: 839-49.
12.    Jordan CT, Guzman ML, Noble M. Cancer stem cells. N Engl J Med. 2006; 355: 1253-61.
13.    Cohnheim J. Congenitales, quergestreiftes Muskelsarkom der Nieren. Path Anat Physiol Klin Med. 1875; 65: 64-9.
14.    Wicha MS, Liu S, Dontu G. Cancer stem cells: an old idea — a paradigm shift. Cancer Res. 2006; 66: 1883-90.
15.    Bonnet D, Dick JE. Human acute myeloid leukemia is organized as a hierarchy that originates from a primitive hematopoietic cell. Nat Med. 1997; 3: 730-7.
16.    Lapidot T, Sirard C, Vormoor J, Murdoch B, Hoang T, Caceres-Cortes J, et al. A cell initiating human acute myeloid leukaemia after transplantation into SCID mice. Nature. 1994; 367: 645-8.
17.    Yamashita T, Wang XW. Cancer stem cells in the development of liver cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013; 123: 1911-8.
18.    Paez JG, Jänne PA, Lee JC, Tracy S, Greulich H, Gabriel S, et al. EGFR mutations in lung cancer: correlation with clinical response to gefitinib therapy. Science. 2004; 304: 1497-500.
19.    Lynch TJ, Bell DW, Sordella R, Gurubhagavatula S, Okimoto RA, Brannigan BW, et al. Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor underlying responsiveness of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 2129-39. Markowitz SD, Bertagnolli MM. Molecular origins of cancer: Molecular basis of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 2449-60.
20.    Ogino S, Goel A. Molecular classification and correlates in colorectal cancer. J Mol Diagn. 2008; 10: 13-27.
21.    Pritchard CC, Grady WM. Colorectal cancer molecular biology moves into clinical practice. Gut. 2011; 60: 116-29.
22.    Dolle JM, Daling JR, White E, Brinton LA, Doody DR, Porter PL, et al. Risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer in women under the age of 45 years. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 1157-66.
23.    Trivers KF, Lund MJ, Porter PL, Liff JM, Flagg EW, Coates RJ, et al. The epidemiology of triple-negative breast cancer, including race. Cancer Causes Control. 2009; 20: 1071-82.
24.    Tomlins SA, Rhodes DR, Perner S, Dhanasekaran SM, Mehra R, Sun XW, et al. Recurrent fusion of TMPRSS2 and ETS transcription factor genes in prostate cancer. Science. 2005; 310: 644-8.
25.    Samuels Y, Wang Z, Bardelli A, Silliman N, Ptak J, Szabo S, et al. High frequency of mutations of the PIK3CA gene in human cancers. Science. 2004; 304: 554.
26.    Samuels Y, Wang Z, Bardelli A, Silliman N, Ptak J, Szabo S, et al. High frequency of mutations of the PIK3CA gene in human cancers. Science. 2004; 304: 554.
27.    Wood LD, Parsons DW, Jones S, Lin J, Sjöblom T, Leary RJ, et al. The genomic landscapes of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2007; 318: 1108-13.
28.    Esteller M. Epigenetics in cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 1148-59.
29.    Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Procter M, Ley land-Jones B, Goldhirsch A, Untch M, Smith I, et al. Trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 1659-72.
30.    Mendelsohn J. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition by a monoclonal antibody as anticancer therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 1997; 3: 2703-7.
31.    Giaccone G. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 3235-42.
32.    Kim ES, Vokes EE, Kies MS. Cetuximab in cancers of the lung and head & neck. Semin Oncol. 2004; 31 [Suppl 1]: 61-7.
33.    Finn OJ. Cancer Immunology. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 2704-15.
34.    Melero I, Hervas-Stubbs S, Glennie M, Pardoll DM, Chen L. Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer. 2007; 7: 95-106.
35.    Hamid O, Robert C, Daud A, Hodi FS, Hwu WJ, Kefford R, et al. Safety and tumor responses with lambrolizumab [anti-PD-1] in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2013: 369: 134-44.
36.    Schadendorf D, Hodi FS, Robert C, Weber JS, Margolin K, Hamid O, et al. Pooled analysis of long-term survival data from phase II and phase III trials of ipilimumab in unresectable or metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33: 1889-94.
37.    Jiang XR, Song A, Bergelson S, Arroll T, Parekh B, May K, et al. Advances in the assessment and control of the effector functions of therapeutic antibodies. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2011; 10: 101-11.
38.    Weiner LM, Murray JC, Shuptrine CW. Antibody-based immunotherapy of cancer. Cell. 2012; 148: 1081-4.
39.    Taylor C, Hershman D, Shah N, Suciu-Foca N, Petrylak DP, Taub R, et al. Augmented HER-2 specific immunity during treatment with trastuzumab and chemotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13: 5133-43
40.    Zou W, Chen L. Inhibitory B7-family molecules in the tumour microenvironment. Nature Rev Immunol. 2008; 8: 467-77.
41.    Andre F, Dieci MV, Dubsky P, Sotiriou C, Curigliano G, Denkert C, et al. Molecular pathways: involvement of immune pathways in the therapeutic response and outcome in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19: 28-33.
42.    May KF Jr, Gulley JL, Drake CG, Dranoff G, Kantoff PW. Prostate cancer immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17: 5233-8.
43.    Page DB, Postow MA, Callahan MK, Allison JP, Wolchok JD. Immune modulation in cancer with antibodies. Annu Rev Med. 2014; 65: 185-202.
44.    Schumacher TN, Schreiber RD. Neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Science. 2015; 348: 69-74.
45.    Sharma P, Allison JP. The future of immune checkpoint therapy. Science. 2015 ; 348: 56-61.
46.    Walunas TL, Lenschow DJ, Bakker CY, Linsley PS, Freeman GJ, Green JM, et al. CTLA-4 can function as a negative regulator of T cell activation. Immunity. 1994; 1: 405-13.
47.    Krummel MF, Allison JP. CD28 and CTLA-4 have opposing effects on the response of T cells to stimulation. J Exp Med. 1995; 182: 459-65
48.    Deguine J, Breart B, Lemaitre F, Di Santo JP, Bousso P. Intravital imaging reveals distinct dynamics for natural killer and CD8+ T cells during tumor regression. Immunity. 2010; 33: 632-44.
49.    Restivo NP, Dudley ME, Rosenberg SA. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: harnessing the T cell response. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012; 12: 269-81.
50.    Ruf P, Lindhofer H. Induction of a long-lasting antitumor immunity by a trifunctional bispecific antibody. Blood. 2001; 98: 2526-34.
51.    Morgan DA, Ruscetti FW, Gallo R. Selective in vitro growth of T lymphocytes from normal human bone marrows. Science. 1976; 193: 1007-8.
52.    Rosenberg SA, Mulé JJ, Spiess PJ, Reichert CM, Schwarz SL. Regression of established pulmonary metastases and subcutaneous tumor mediated by the systemic administration of high-dose recombinant interleukin 2. J Exp Med. 1985; 161: 1169-88.
53.    Eberlein TJ, Rosenstein M, Rosenberg SA. Regression of a disseminated syngeneic solid tumor by systemic transfer of lymphoid cells expanded in interleukin 2. J Exp Med. 1982; 156: 385-97.
54.    Donohue JH, Rosenstein M, Chang AE, Lotze MT, Robb RJ, Rosenberg SA. The systemic administration of purified interleukin 2 enhances the ability of sensitized murine lymphocytes to cure a disseminated syngeneic lymphoma. J Immunol. 1984; 132: 2123-8.
55.    Bryant NL, Gillespie GY, Lopez RD, Markert JM, Cloud GA, Langford CP, et al. Preclinical evaluation of ex vivo expanded/activated gammadelta T cells for immunotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol. 2011; 101: 179-88.
56.    Cools N, Ponsaerts P, Van Tendeloo VF, Berneman ZN. Balancing between immunity and tolerance: an interplay between dendritic cells, regulatory T cells, and effector T cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2007; 82: 1365-74.
57.    Zinkernagel RM, Hengartner H. Regulation of the immune response by antigen. Science. 2001; 293: 251-3.
58.    Reise Sousa C. Dendritic cells in a mature age. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006; 6: 476-83.
59.    Anguile S, Willemen Y, Lion E, Smits EL, Berneman ZN. Dendritic cell vaccination in acute myeloid leukemia. Cytotherapy. 2012; 14: 647-56.
60.    Moretta L, Ferlazzo G, Bottino C, Vitale M, Pende D, Mingari MC, et al. Effector and regulatory events during natural killer-dendritic cell interactions. Immunol Rev. 2006; 214: 219-28.
61.    Palucka K, Banchereau J, Mellman I. Designing vaccines based on biology of human dendritic cell subsets. Immunity. 2010; 33: 464-78.
62.    Diamond MS, Kinder M, Matsushita H, Mashayekhi M, Dunn GP, Archambault JM, et al. Type I interferon is selectively required by dendritic cells for immune rejection of tumors. J Exp Med. 2011; 208: 1989-2003.
63.    Fuertes MB, Kacha AK, Kline J, Woo SR, Kranz DM, Murphy KM, et al. Host type I IFN signals are required for antitumor CD8+ T cell responses through CD8α+ dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2011; 208: 2005-16.
64.    Disis ML, Schiffman K, Guthrie K, Salazar LG, Knutson KL, Goodell V, et al. Effect of dose on immune response in patients vaccinated with an her-2/neu intracellular domain protein-based vaccine. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 1916-25.
65.    Czerniecki BJ, Koski GK, Koldovsky U, Xu S, Cohen PA, Mick R, et al. Targeting HER-2/neu in early breast cancer development using dendritic cells with staged interleukin-12 burst secretion. Cancer Res. 2007; 67: 1842-52.
66.    Baxevanis CN, Sotiriadou NN, Gritzapis AD, Sotiropoulou PA, Perez SA, Cacoullos NT, et al. Immunogenic HER-2/neu peptides as tumor vaccines. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2006; 55: 85-95.
67.    Redfern CH, Guthrie TH, Bessudo A, Densmore JJ, Holman PR, Janakiraman N, et al. Phase II trial of idiotype vaccination in previously treated patients with indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma resulting in durable clinical responses. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 3107-12.
68.    Butts C, Murray N, Maksymiuk A, Goss G, Marshall E, Soulières D, et al. Randomized phase IIB trial of BLP25 liposome vaccine in stage IIIB and IV non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 6674-81.
69.    Fay JW, Palucka AK, Paczesny S, Dhodapkar M, Johnston DA, Burkeholder S, et al. Long-term outcomes in patients with metastatic melanoma vaccinated with melanoma peptide-pulsed CD34[+] progenitor-derived dendritic cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2006; 55: 1209-18.
70.    Palucka AK, Ueno H, Connolly J, Kerneis-Norvell F, Blanck JP, Johnston DA, et al. Dendritic cells loaded with killed allogeneic melanoma cells can induce objective clinical responses and MART-1 specific CD8+ T-cell immunity. J Immunother. 2006; 29: 545-57.
71.    Bernhardt SL, Gjertsen MK, Trachsel S, Moller M, Eriksen JA, Meo M, et al. Telomerase peptide vaccination of patients with nonresectable pancreatic cancer: a dose escalating phase I/II study. Br J Cancer. 2006; 95: 1474-82.
72.    Gould P. Sipuleucel-T shows partial advantage in prostate cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2006; 7: 710.
73.    Finke LH, Wentworth K, Blumenstein B, Rudolph NS, Levitsky H, Hoos A. Lessons from randomized phase III studies with active cancer immunotherapies — outcomes from the 2006 meeting of the Cancer Vaccine Consortium [CVC]. Vaccine. 2007; 25 [Suppl 2]: B97-109.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Syed Sagheer Ahmed, Chandra Prakash. K, Saba Tabassum, Noor Salma, Ahalya Devi. K H

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2019.00003.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Purnendu Panda, Banamali Das, DS Sahu, SK Meher, BK Das, MM Rao, GChD Naga Lakshmi.

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2015.00011.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Manasa K.S, Kuppast I.J, Kishan Kumar M.A , Akshara K

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2016.00034.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Madhavi Sahu, S. Prakash Rao

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2018.00031.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): M Lavanya, Asish Bhaumik, A Gopi Reddy, Ch Manasa, B Kalyani, S Sushmitha

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2016.00012.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ajay Kumar Meena, Himanshu Sehgal, MM Rao, P Panda, MM Padhi.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Anju Mary Daniel, Eby Aluckal, Giju Baby George, Mathews Baby

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2017.00028.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Pushpa A. Karale, Mahesh A. Karale, Mokshada C. Utikar

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2018.00006.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): S. Janet Beula, T. Rama Mohan Reddy, R. Suthakaran, K. Suneetha

DOI: 10.52711/2321-5836.2021.00013         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Prakash S. Sukhramani, Piyush M Patel.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): AV Jaydeokar, DD Bandawane, SS Nipate , PD. Chaudhari.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Shoaib Ahmad

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2017.00017.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Namrata Dwivedi, Bhavna Dwivedi, Skand Mishra, Yogeshwer Shukla.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): DK Suresh, Mangesh Gavali, Vivek Ingale, Bhaumik Thakar, Md. Saifuddin K, Raghvendra Rao.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Qureshi Md. Shamim, Patel Jitendra, Venkateshwar Reddy A, Syed Safiullah, P Mohapatra.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Vidya Kameshwari, Selvakumar Selvaraj, Sangeetha Sundaramoorthy

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2020.00010.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): S Rani, R Manavalan, D Kilimozhi.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): D Saha, D Mridha, S Beura.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Amit Alexander, DK Tripathi, Ajazuddin, Mukesh Singh, Monesh Sahu, Swarna.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics (RJPPD) is an international, peer-reviewed journal....... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.5958 2321-5836 

Recent Articles