Approximate, 10 million patients are receiving transfusion of many blood products in a year because this therapy is a life saving therapy. It is an independent risk factor for infection, morbidity and death in serious patients. The Blood are comprising of three main components i.e. Plasma, Blood cells and Platelets. The plasma is the main part of our blood it’s about 55% of total blood contents. The plasma is a slightly yellow colored liquid and it carries water, salts and enzymes. It contains many essential components like as water, salt, hormones, albumin, fibrinogen, enzymes and antibodies. The Plasma Rich Platelets (PRP) is obtained from the recovered patient’s blood. In PRP, the maximum amount of platelets are present and they help in the many diseases like as- orthopedics, ophthalmology, injuries, tendons, surgery healings, gynecology and infertility etc. The production of plasma proteins and growth factors are maintained by diet. Recently, the convalescent plasma therapy is used for the treatment of Covid-19 because a vaccine or specific medicine not yet available for this virus.
Cite this article:
Ravi Kumar, Sachin Tyagi, Parveen Kumar. Plasma Therapy types, adverse effect and for some Critical Disease. Res. J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics.2020; 12(4):163-171. doi: 10.5958/2321-5836.2020.00030.0
1. Morgan, E. H., and T. Peters, Jr. 1971. The biosynthesis of rat serum albumin. V. Effect of protein depletion and refeeding on albumin and transferrin synthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 246:3500.
2. Ferrari M, Zia S, Valbonesi M, Henriquet F, Venere G, Spagnolo S, Grasso MA, Panzani I. A new technique for hemodilution, preparation of autologous platelet-rich plasma and intraoperative blood salvage in cardiac surgery. Int J Artif Organs 1987; 10:47-50.
3. Platelets rich plasma (Injection), Information and instruction for patients. Stanford University Medical Research Department of Radiolog.
4. Yoshida K, Sumita Y, Marukawa E. Effect of platelet-rich plasma on bone engineering with an alloplastic substitute containing bmp2. Biomed Mater Eng. 2013; 23(3): 163-172.
5. Fernandes G, Yang S. Application of plateletrich plasma with stem cells in bone and periodontal tissue engineering. Bone Res. 2016; 4: 16036.
6. Mishra A, Pavelko T. “Treatment of chronic elbow tendinosis with buffered platelets rich plasma”. American Journal of sports Medicine, 34(11); 1774-1778, 2006.
7. Burnouf T. Recombinant plasma proteins. Vox Sanguinis, the International Journal of Transfusion Medicine. 2010; 100: 68–83.
8. Lubkowska A, Dolegowska B, Banﬁ G. Growth factor content in PRP and their applicability in medicine. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2012; 26.
9. Foster TE, Puskas BL, Mandelbaum BR. Platelet-rich plasma: from basic science to clinical applications. Am J Sports Med 2009; 37: 2259–72.
10. Daga Ruiza D., Fonseca SMF., González de Molina F.J., Úbeda-Iglesiasd A., Navas Péreze A., Jannone Forésf R. Plasmapheresis and other extracorporeal ﬁltration techniques in critical patients. Med Intensiva. 2017;41(3):174-187.
11. Hannink M, Donoghue DJ. Structure and function of platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf) and related proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989; 989(1): 1-10.
12. Eggert-Kruse W, Boit R, Rohr GJ. Relationship of seminal plasma interleukin (il) -8 and il-6 with semen quality. Hum Reprod. 2001; 16(3): 517-528.
13. Maurya VK, Jha RK, Kumar V. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (tgf-b1) liberation from its latent complex during embryo implantation and its regulation by estradiol in mouse. Biol Reprod. 2013; 89(4): 84.
14. Perrier d'Hauterive S, Charlet-Renard C, Dubois M. Human endometrial leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-6: Control of secretion by transforming growth factor-betarelated members. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2005; 12(3): 157-163.
15. Lee HS, Park YS, Lee JS. Serum and seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in male infertility. Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2016; 43(2): 97-101.
16. Tsutsumi O, Kurachi H, Oka T. A physiological role of epidermal growth factor in male reproductive function. Science. 1986; 233(4767): 975-977.
17. Griffeth RJ, Bianda V, Nef S. The emerging role of insulin-like growth factors in testis development and function. Basic Clin Androl. 2014:24:12.
18. Jun JI, Lau LF. Taking aim at the extracellular matrix: Ccn proteins as emerging therapeutic targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2011; 10: 945-963.
19. Isbister JP. Adverse Reactions to Plasma and Plasma Components. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Vol_ 21, February, 1993. P. 31-38.
20. Gorgas DL, Kaide CG. Transfusion therapy: blood and blood products. In: Roberts JR, editors. Roberts and Hedges’ clinical procedures in emergency medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2014. p. 496-517.
21. American Association of Blood Banks (AABB). Circular of information for the use of human blood and blood components; Nov. 2013.
22. Maskens C, Downie H, Wendt A. Hospital-based transfusion error tracking from 2005 to 2010: identifying the key errors threatening patient transfusion safety. Transfusion. 2014; 54(1):66-73.
23. Carman M, Uhlenbrock JS, McClintock SM. A Review of Current Practice in Transfusion Therapy. AJN, May 2018. Vol. 118, P. 36-44.
24. Zantek ND, Koepsell SA, Tharp DR Jr. The direct antiglobulin test: a critical step in the evaluation of hemolysis. Am J Hematol. 2012; 87(7):707-709.
25. US Food and Drug Administration. Transfusion/donation fatalities. http:// www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/SafetyAvailability/ ReportaProblem/Transfusion Donation Fatalities. Accessed November 5, 2014.
26. Stowell SR, Winkler AM, Maier CL, Initiation and regulation of complement during hemolytic transfusion reactions. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012; 2012:307093.
27. Liu C, Zhao W, Christ GJ, Nitric oxide scavenging by red cell micro particles. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013; 65:1164-1173.
28. Huh YO, Lichtiger B. Transfusion reactions in patients with cancer. Am J Clin Path. 1987; 87(2):253-257.
29. Carson JL. Red blood cell transfusion: a clinical practice guideline from the AABB. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157(1): 49-58.
30. Tseng E. An order set and checklist improve physician transfusion ordering practices to mitigate the risk of transfusion-associated circulatory overload. Transfus Med 2016; 26(2): 104-10.
31. Hendrickson JE. Incidence of transfusion reactions: a multicenter study utilizing systematic active surveillance and expert adjudication. Transfusion 2016; 56(10):2587-96.
32. Alam A. The prevention of transfusion-associated circulatory overload. Transfus Med Rev 2013; 27(2):105-12.
33. Lieberman L. A retrospective review of patient factors, transfusion practices, and outcomes in patients with transfusion associated circulatory overload. Transfus Med Rev 2013; 27(4):206-212.
34. Alam A, Lin Y, Lima A. The prevention of transfusion-associated circulatory overload. Transfus Med. 2013; 27(2):105-112.
35. Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL. Consensus Committee. Report of the American-European Consensus conference on acute respiratory distress syndrome: definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. J Crit Care. 1994; 9(1):72-81.
36. Sahu S. Adverse events related to blood transfusion. Indian J Anaesth 2014; 58(5):543-51.
37. Vlaar AP, Juffermans NP. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a clinical review. Lancet 2013; 382(9896):984-94.
38. West FB, Silliman CC. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: advances in understanding the role of proinflammatory mediators in its genesis. Expert Rev Hematol. 2013; 6(3):265-276.
39. Cherry T, Steciuk M, Reddy VV. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: past, present, and future. Am J Clin Path. 2008; 129(2):287-297.
40. West FB, Silliman CC. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: advances in understanding the role of proinflammatory mediators in its genesis. Expert Rev Hematol. 2013;6(3):265-276.
41. Gorgas DL, Kaide CG. Transfusion therapy: blood and blood products. In: Roberts JR. editors. Roberts and Hedges’ clinical procedures in emergency medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2014. p. 496-517.
42. Ness PM, Shirey RS, Thoman SK. The differentiation of delayed serologic and delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions: incidence, long-term serologic findings, and clinical significance. Transfusion. 1990; 30(8):688-693.
43. Alter HJ, Klein HG. The hazards of blood transfusion in historical perspective. Blood. 2008; 112(7):2617-2626.
44. Gorgas DL, Kaide CG. Transfusion therapy: blood and blood products. In: Roberts JR, editors. Roberts and Hedges’ clinical procedures in emergency medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2014. p. 496-517.
45. Higgins MJ, Blackall DP. Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease: a serious residual risk of blood transfusion. Curr Hematol Rep. 2005; 4(6):470-476.
46. Shtalrid M, Shvidel L, Vorst E, Post-transfusion purpura: a challenging diagnosis. Isr Med Assoc J. 2006; 8(10):672-674.
47. Heikal NM, Smock KJ. Laboratory testing for platelet antibodies. Am J Hematol. 2013; 88(9):818-821.
48. Heal JM, Phipps RP, Blumberg N. One big unhappy family: transfusion alloimmunization, thrombosis, and immune modulation/inflammation. Transfusion. 2009; 49(6):1032-1036.
49. Bauer MP, Wiersum-Osselton J, Schipperus M. Clinicalpredictors of alloimmunization after red blood cell transfusion. Transfusion. 2007; 47(11):2066-2071.
50. Metelmann, H.R.; Nedrelow, D.S.; Seebauer, C.; Schuster, M.; von Woedtke, T.; Weltmann, K.D.; Kindler, S.; Metelmann, P.H.; Finkelstein, S.E.; Von Hoff, D.D.; et al. Head and neck cancer treatment and physical plasma. Clin. Plasma Med. 2015, 3, 17–23.
51. VandammeM. Robert E. Pesnel S. Barbosa E. Dozias S. Sobilo J. Lerondel, S. LePape A. Pouvesle J.M. Antitumor effect of plasma treatment on u87 glioma xenografts: Preliminary results. Plasma Process. Polym. 2010, 7, 264–273.
52. Michael Keidar. Plasma for cancer treatment. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 (2015).
53. Keidar M, Walk R, Shashurin A, Srinivasan P, Sandler A, Dasgupta S, Ravi R, Guerrero-Preston R and Trink B 2011 Cold plasma selectivity and the possibility of a paradigm shift in cancer therapy Br. J. Cancer 105.
54. Lord C J and Ashworth A 2012 The DNA damage response and cancer therapy Nature 287–94.
55. Graves D 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 263001
56. Radogna, F. Diederich M. Stress-induced cellular responses in immunogenic cell death: Implications for cancer immunotherapy. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2018, 153, 12–23.
57. Riou C, Peixoto BP, Roberts L, Ronacher K, Walzl G, Manca C, Rustomjee R, Mthiyane T, Fallows D, Gray CM, Kaplan G. Effect of Standard Tuberculosis Treatment on Plasma Cytokine Levels in Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis. PLoS ONE plosone.org, Volume 7, 2 May 2012.
58. Wallis RS, Wang C, Doherty M, Onyebujoh P, Vahedi M. Biomarkers for tuberculosis disease activity, cure, and relapse. Lancet Infect Diseases 2010; 10: 70–71.
59. Ribeiro-Rodrigues R, Resende Co T, Johnson JL, Ribeiro F, Palaci M. Sputum cytokine levels in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis as early markers of mycobacterial clearance. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002; 9: 818–823.
60. Bekker LG, Maartens G, Steyn L, Kaplan G (Selective increase in plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and concomitant clinical deterioration after initiating therapy in patients with severe tuberculosis. J Infect Dis 1998; 178: 580–584.
61. Kapplan G, Luster AD, Handcock G, Cohn ZA. The expression of a gamma interferon-induced protein (IP-10) in delayed immune responses in human skin. J exp Med 1987; 166; 1098–1108.
62. John SH, Kenneth J, Gandhe AS. Host biomarkers of clinical relevance in tuberculosis: review of gene and protein expression studies. Biomarkers. 2011.
63. Ferrara N, Gerber HP, LeCouter J. The biology of VEGF and its receptors. Nat Med 2003; 9: 669–676.
64. Marx RE. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): what is PRP and what is not PRP? Implant Dent 2001; 10: 225–228.
65. Shin MK, Lee JH, Lee SJ. Platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional laser therapy for skin rejuvenation. Dermatol Surg 2012; 38: 623–30.
66. Park KY, Kim HK, Kim BJ. Letter: Platelet-rich plasma for treating male pattern baldness. Dermatol Surg 2012; 38: 2042–4.
67. Atkin DH, Trookman NS, Rizer RL. Combination of physiologically balanced growth factors with antioxidants for reversal of facial photodamage. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2010; 12: 14 –20.
68. Fitzpatrick RE, Rostan EF. Reversal of photodamage with topical growth factors: a pilot study. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2003; 5: 25 –34.
69. Mehryan P, Zartab H, Rajabi A. Assessment of efﬁcacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on infra orbital dark circles and crow’s feet wrinkles. J Cosmet Dermatol 2014; 13: 72 –78.
70. Azzena B, Mazzoleni F, Abatangelo G. Autologous platelet-rich plasma as an adipocyte in vivo delivery system: case report. Aesthetic Plast Surg 2008; 32: 155–8; discussion 9–61.
71. Cervelli V, Nicoli F, Spallone D. Treatment of traumatic scars using fat grafts mixed with platelet-rich plasma, and resurfacing of skin with the 1540 nm nonablative laser. Clin Exp Dermatol 2012; 37: 55 –61.
72. Zhu JT, Xuan M, Zhang YN. The efﬁcacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with erbium fractional laser therapy for facial acne scars or acne. Mol Med Rep 2013; 8: 233–7.
73. Gawdat HI, Hegazy RA, Fawzy MM. Autologous platelet rich plasma: topical versus intradermal after fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser treatment of atrophic acne scars. Dermatol Surg 2014; 40: 152–61.
74. Bethany L. Browna, Je ﬀrey McCulloughb. Treatment for emerging viruses: Convalescent plasma and COVID-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2020.
75. Marano G, Vaglio S, Pupella S. Convalescent plasma: new evidence for an old therapeutic tool? Blood Transfus 2016; 14(2):152–7.
76. Chunyan W, Li W, Dubravka D, Okbada Nisreen MA, Rienvan H, Osterhaus Albert DME. A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection. bioRxiv 2020. https://doi.org/10.1101/ 20200311987958.
77. China Seeks Plasma from Recovered Patients to Treat Virus. Time. Available from: https://time.com/5784286/covid-19-china-plasma-treatment/.
78. China puts 245 COVID-19 patients on convalescent plasma therapy. News release. Xinhua. February 28, 2020. Available at: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/ 2020-02/28/c_138828177.htm. Accessed March 10, 2020.
79. Cunningham AC, Goh HP, Koh D. Treatment of COVID-19: old tricks for new challenges. Crit Care 2020; 24(1):91.
80. Awi NJ and Teow SY. Antibody-Mediated Therapy against HIV/AIDS: Where Are We Standing Now? Hindawi Journal of Pathogens Volume 2018. P.9.
81. O. O. Oguntibeju, “Quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS and antiretroviral therapy,” HIV/AIDS—Research and Palliative Care, 2012; vol.4, pp.117–124.
82. Burton DR, Hangartner L, “Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to HIV and Their Role in Vaccine Design,” Annual ReviewofImmunology, vol.34, pp.635–659, 2016.
83. Burton DR, Barbas III CF, Persson MAA, Koenig S, Changcr RM, Lerner RA, “A large array of human monoclonal antibodies to type 1 human immunodeficiency virus from combinatorial libraries of asymptomatic seropositive individuals,” Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.88, no.22, pp.10134–10137,1991.
84. Zhang Z, Guan Q, H. Yuan. “HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies: Identification, Development and Vaccine Evaluation,” Journal of AIDS and Clinical Research, vol. 7, article 636, 2016.
85. Caskey M, Schoofs T, Gruell H. “Antibody 10-1074 suppresses viremia in HIV-1-infected individuals,” Nature Medicine, vol.23, no.2, pp.185–191, 2017.
86. Bar KJ, Sneller MC, Harrison LJ. “Effect of HIV antibody VRC01 on viral rebound after treatment interruption,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 375, no. 21, pp.2037– 2050,2016.
87. L. Xu, A. Pegu, E. Rao. “Tri specific broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies mediate potent SHIV protection in macaques,” Science, vol.358, no.6359, pp.85–90, 2017.
88. Laflamme MA, Murry CE. Heart regeneration. Nature 2011; 473: 326-335.
89. Song K, Nam YJ, Luo X, Qi X, Tan W, Huang GN, Acharya A, Smith CL, Tallquist MD, Neilson EG, Hill JA, Bassel-Duby R, Olson EN. Heart repair by reprogramming non-myocytes with cardiac transcription factors. Nature 2012; 485: 599-604.
90. Yancopoulos GD, Davis S, Gale NW, Rudge JS, Wiegand SJ, Holash J. Vascular-specific growth factors and blood vessel formation. Nature 2000; 407: 242-248.
91. Bir SC, Esaki J, Marui A, Yamahara K, Tsubota H, Ikeda T, Sakata R. Angiogenic properties of sustained release platelet-rich plasma: characterization in-vitro and in the ischemic hind limb of the mouse. J Vasc Surg 2009; 50: 870-879.
92. Persson AB, Buschmann IR. Vascular growth in health and disease. Front Mol Neurosci 2011; 4: 14.
93. Cao R, Bråkenhielm E, Li X, Pietras K, Widenfalk J, Ostman A, Eriksson U, Cao Y. Angiogenesis stimulated by PDGF-CC, a novel member in the PDGF family, involves activation of PDGFR alpha alpha and –alpha beta receptors. FASEB J 2002; 16: 1575-1583.
94. Asahara T, Bauters C, Zheng LP, Takeshita S, Bunting S, Ferrara N, Symes JF, Isner JM. Synergistic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on angiogenesis in vivo. Circulation 1995; 92.
95. Bennett NT, Schultz GS. Growth factors and wound healing: Biochemical properties of growth factors and their receptors. Am J Surg. 1993; 165(6): 728-737.
96. Nazari L, Salehpour S, Hoseini S. Effects of autologous platelet-rich plasma on implantation and pregnancy in repeated implantation failure: A pilot study. Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd). 2016; 14(10): 625-628.
97. Abraham S, Rangaswamy SP, Chinnaiah A. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy: An Approach in Endometrium Regeneration. IJRR Vol.6; Issue: 9; September 2019, 97-102.
98. Gonen Y, Casper RF, Prediction of implantation by the sonographic appearance of the endometrium during controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (ivf). J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transf. 1990; 7(3): 146152.
99. Oliveira JB, Baruffi RL, Mauri AL. Endometrial ultrasonography as a predictor of pregnancy in an in-vitro fertilization programme after ovarian stimulation and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and gonadotrophins. Hum Reprod. 1997; 12: 2515-2518.
100. Chang Y, Li J, Chen Y. Autologous platelet-rich plasma promotes endometrial growth and improves pregnancy outcome during in vitro fertilization. Int J Clin Exp Med. 8(1): 2015; 1286-1290.